A valve is an extremely versatile device that can be found almost anywhere. Valves can be seen in houses, power plants, paper mills, refineries and various infrastructure and industrial facilities. Valves are commonly used in the following seven industries:
1. Power industries
Many power plants adopt fossil fuels and high-speed turbines to generate electricity. A gate valve
is the first choice for opening and closing applications of a power plant. Sometimes other valves are also used, for example Y-type globe valves. Ball valves with high performance are widely used in the power industry. Power plant applications make pipelines and valves under great pressure, so valves require strong materials and design to cope with the multiple tests of circulation, temperature and pressure.
In addition to the main steam valve, the power plant has many auxiliary pipelines. These auxiliary pipelines consist of various globe valves, butterfly valves, check valves, ball valves and gate valves.
A waterworks requires relatively low pressure and ambient temperatures. Since the water temperature is normal, rubber seals and elastomers that are not suitable elsewhere can be used. A water valve made from these types of materials can be installed well to prevent water leakages. The valve of a waterworks usually has pressure much lower than 200psi, so there is no need for high pressure and wall thickness pressure design. Unless a valve is required at a high pressure point in a dam or a long waterway, a built-in water valve is needed to withstand pressure of about 300 psi.
3. Offshore industries
The piping systems of offshore production facilities and oil rigs contain a large number of valves. These valve products have a variety of specifications and can cope with all flow control problems. The key part of the oil production facility is the natural gas or oil recovery pipeline system. This system is not just used on platforms, its production systems are usually used at depths of 10,000 feet or more. On relative large oil platforms, crude oil from the wellhead needs to be processed more. These processes include the separation of natural gas from fluid vapors and the separation of water from hydrocarbons. Ball valves, check valves and API 6D gate valves are usually used for these systems. API 6D valves are not suitable for applications which have strict requirements on pipelines, and generally used in internal facility pipelines on drilling ships or platforms.
4. Wastewater treatment
Waste water pipelines collect waste solids and fluids and lead them to sewage treatment plants. Sewage treatment plants adopt low-pressure pipes and valves. In many cases, the requirements for wastewater valves are lower than that of clean water. Check valves
and iron gate valves are the most popular choices in wastewater treatment.
5. Oil and gas production
Many heavy valves are used in gas and oil wells and their production facilities. The underground natural gas and oil are under tremendous pressure, and the oil and gas can be sprayed onto the sky as high as 100 meters. The combination of valves and special fittings can withstand pressure above 10,000 psi. This kind of pressure is rare on land, but is more common in deep sea oil wells. Valves used in wellhead equipment are subject to high temperature and extremely high pressure. Valve pipeline combinations usually include special globe valves (or called throttle valves) and gate valves. A special globe valve is used to adjust the flow from the well. In addition to wellheads, there are facilities that require valves on natural gas and oil fields. These include process equipment for pretreatment of natural gas or oil. These valves are usually made from carbon steel and have lower grades.
6. Production pipelines
Many important valves are used in these pipelines, for example globe valves for emergency pipelines. The emergency valve can isolate a section of pipelines for maintenance or in the case of leakages. There are also scattered facilities along the pipeline: this is the place where the pipeline emerges from the ground, and the equipment is used to inspect and clean the production line. These stations contain multiple valves, which are usually ball valves or gate valves. The valves of the piping system must be fully opened to allow the passage of the sewage equipment.
7. Commercial buildings
There are a large number of pipelines in the commercial buildings. After all, every building needs water and electricity. For water, there must be various pipeline systems to transport tap water, wastewater, hot water and fire prevention facilities. In addition, in order for the fire fighting system to work properly, a valve must have sufficient pressure, and the type and category of the fire general assembly valve must be approved by the corresponding management agency before installation.